Table 1

- Bacteria associated with colorectal cancer.

BacteriaAssociation with colorectal cancer
Fusobacterium nucleatum- Stages, recurrence, and patients’ low survival rates
- Prevalence of a molecular feature such as mutation of BRAF, hypermutation with microsatellite instability and metastases
- Serrated pathway manipulation
- Binds to the E-cadherins’s extracellular domain and induces cancer cell proliferation
- Promotes autophagy by upregulating CARD3
- Regulates microRNA to induce chemotherapy resistance
- Inhibits T-cell infiltration and stimulates myeloid-derived immunity
Peptostreptococcus anaerobius- Induces TLR2/4 that causes ROS activation
- Promotes cholesterol synthesis
- Induces cell proliferation
Peptostreptococcus stomatis- Induces hypoxia
- Produces CMS-1
Prevotella intermediaMutates P53 in pancreatic cancer
Parvimonas micraInterrupts NOD2 that is involved in chemotherapy resistance and cancer progression
Bacteroides fragilis- Regulates STAT3 and NF-kB that modulate pro-inflammatory molecules such as cytokine IL-17
- Interrupts E-cadherin and DNA damage
- Induces COX-2, causing upregulation of PGE2 and promotion of inflammation and cell proliferation
Streptococcus gallolyticusInduces pro-inflammatory markers such as NF-κB and IL-8
Escherichia coliInduces chromosomal appearance

BRAF: B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase, CARD3: caspase activation and recruitment domain 3, TLR: toll-like receptor, ROS: reactive oxygen species, CMS-1: consensus molecular subtype-1, P53: tumor protein p53, NOD2: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2, STAT3: Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 3, NF-kB: nuclear factor kappa B, IL: interleukin, COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, PGE2: prostaglandin E2