Table 1

- Summarize all prevalence, risk factor, ABO genes report from various studies in Saudi Arabia.

StudyCityPeriodPrevalence of MDR A. baumannii/percentageRisk FactorsABO GenesRef
King Fahad National Guard HospitalRiyadh2004-2009The susceptibility of A. baumannii to imipenem (55% to 10%), meropenem (33% to 10%), ciprofloxacin (22% to 10%), and amikacin (12% to 6%) was greatly reduced.N/AN/A39
King Abdulaziz Medical City HospitalRiyadh2006-2008Resistance against Meropenem (92.1%), Imipenem (79.1%)N/AN/A40
Riyadh Military HospitalRiyadhJanuary to December 2009Resistance against Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (96), Piperacillin/tazobactam (93), Ciprofloxacin (92)N/AN/A41
Tertiary HospitalRiyadhJanuary to December 2010Resistance against Ceftazidime (78), Cefepime (78), Aztreonam (78), Imipenem (89), Meropenem (89), Tigecycline (56), Colistin (30)N/AGES-5 makes A. baumannii resistant to carbapenems.42
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CentreRiyadh2008-2012Resistance against Imipenem and Meropenem (54%), but it was sensitivity to Tigecycline and Colistin (57%).Diabetic patientsblaOXA-23, blaOXA-24/4044
Multiple hospitalsVarious regions including Riyadh, Jeddah, Al Medina Al Munawwarah, and Makkah2018-2019N/AMechanically ventilated patients, military hospitals, and fewer ICU bedsN/A45
Security Forces HospitalRiyadh2006, 2009, and 2012Considering years 2006, 2009 and 2012, the susceptibilities to meropenem and imipenem were 64–81.2%, 34.5–45.3%, and 8.3–11%, respectivelyN/AN/A46
Tertiary care hospitalRiyadh2006-2014The PER-1 locus is highly prevalent among carbapenem-resistant.N/APER-147
King Fahad Specialist HospitalBuraidahJanuary to December 2011Resistance against Ciprofloxacin (90%), Ceftazidime (89%), Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%)N/AN/A48
Al-Rass General HospitalAl-RassDecember 2014 to March 2015Resistance against Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (100), Ciprofloxacin (100%), Piperacillin (100%), Ceftazidime (100%), Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (100%), Gentamicin (90.9%), Amikacin (80%)N/AN/A49
Territory care hospital in QassimQassim areaMarch - December 2017Multidrug resistance (57.7%), Carbapenem (56.8%)N/AblaOXA-23 like gene and ISAba150
King Fahad Specialist HospitalDammamJanuary - June of 2014Among tested carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) isolates: 100% resistance against ciprofloxacin and cefepime, 62.9% resistance to gentamicin, 51.4% resistance to tigecycline, and 40% resistance to amikacin. No significant difference in colistin resistance compared to carbapenem-susceptible Acinetobacter bacteriaICU patientsN/A51
Tertiary care hospitalDammamJanuary 2010 until February 2012Sensitive to the antibiotic colistin. Ceftazidime (85.1%), Cefepime (73.8%) Resistance against Imipenem were 32.6%, while Meropenem was found to be 33.3%ICU patientsCarbapenem resistance came from blaOXA-23 at ISAba1.52
King Fahd Hospital of the UniversityAl KhobarFebruary to September 2014Resistance against Imipenem 93.3% and Meropenem 96.6% ERIC-PCR genotyped CRAB53
seven major hospitalsEastern Province of Saudi Arabia2008-201269% showed carbapenem resistance,N/AGene blaVIM54
General hospitalGeneral hospital in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern regionN/A35.5% of surfaces tested were contaminated with multidrug-resistant isolates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumanniiEnvironmental contamination,blaOXA-66, blaOXA-69, and blaGES55
King Abdul-Aziz HospitalJeddahJanuary 2010 - December 2013The prevalence of MDR and PDR A. baumannii increased from 55% and 20% respectively in 2010 to 67% and 33% in 2013.Resistance against 100% Ceftriaxone, 92.3 % Gentamycine, Cefepine 88.7%, Levofloxacin 88.5%, Piperacelli/Tazobactam 88.4%, Ciprofloxacin 88.4%, Meropenem 88.2%, Ceftazidme 88.2%, Imipenem 86.5%, Amikacin 84.6%, Trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole 69.3%, while Colistin and Tigecycline were with no resistanceN/AblaOXA-66, blaADC-25, blaOXA-2349
N/AJeddah1998-2004prevalence of multidrug resistance to cefoxitin (89%), nitrofurantoin (89%), and ampicillin (86%), only 3% of isolates demonstrated imipenem resistanceN/AN/A56
King Abdulaziz HospitalJeddah2015N/AN/Astrains expressed the resistance genes blaOXA-66, blaADC-25, as well as blaOXA-2357
Tertiary HospitalMadinah2018Summer had 39.15% of these infections, autumn 28.17%, winter 26.48%, and spring 6.2%.Respiratory system infection, summer monthsN/A58
Two hospitalsMakkahJanuary -June 2015Beta-lactam resistance was high. Ceftazidime was also resistant to A. baumannii (n=16, 77%).N/AN/A59
Local hospitalsMakkahfrom 2012- 2014High prevalence of A. baumannii ESBL producers
94 % were found to be resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime, and aztreonam
ICUBla, TEM, SHV, and CTX-M-group genes 1, 2, 8, 9, and 25 were examined. Additionally, bla-OXA51-like and bal-OXA23-like genes60
Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, and Hera HospitalMakkahOctober 2005 to March 2006The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria A. baumannii (10.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3%), Klebsiella sp. (6.2%), Haemophilus influenzae (3.7%), Enterobacter (1.9%), Proteus (3.3%).50%-100% resistance to most antimicrobial drugsN/AN/A61
Different major hospitalsMakkah and JeddahN/AA. baumannii isolates showed tigecycline and colistin susceptibility, whereas 81 and 84% were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, respectively.The presence of underlying diseases was identified as a significant risk factor for A. baumannii high drug resistance.blaOXA, blaVIM, and ISAba162
Seven different hospitalsMakkahFebruary-April 2011resistance rates to multiple agents, including piperacillin (93.1%), tetracycline (76.4%), aztreonam (80.5), cefotaxime (75%), and ampicillin (76.4%).N/AN/A63
Al Noor SpecialistMakkah1 January 2012 and 31 August 2012The study showed that some drugs, like ceftazidime (92%), imipenem (83.3%), trimethoprim (83%), gentamicin (72.7%), and amikacin (79%), have alarmingly high rates of resistance to more than one drug.Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter are linked to being in the ICU and being exposed to invasive treatments.N/A64
Al-Noor Specialist HospitalMakkahbetween 2012 and 2015A. baumannii 1710 (99.13%) was carbapenem-resistant.N/AN/A65
Community HospitalAl Jouf,N/A7.1% of isolates were resistant to most commonly used antibioticsMultidrug-resistant organisms can cause.Surgical site infection and increase mortality.N/A66
N/AAl Jouf,January - December 2019Carbapenem resistance shows hospital antimicrobial medication non-compliance.A. baumannii was resistant to several 1st to 4th generation cephalosporins, 87% of isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxoneResistant BSI-causing microorganisms make infection management difficult and complicate treatment,RFLP patterns67
Prince Mutaib Bin Abdulaziz HospitalAl Jouf,January-December 2017Carbapenem resistance indicates hospital antimicrobial treatment noncompliance.Hospitals struggle to handle resistant BSI-causing bacteria, 68
N/AAseer2013-2014Highly resistant to cefepime (89.8%), ciprofloxacin (82.9%), and gentamicin (81.5%) ISAba1/OXA-23 and ISAba1/OXA-2472
Tertiary care hospitalNajranOctober 2012 to March 2013Highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (75%), imipenem (25%), meropenem (50%), and nitrofurantoin (50%)the incidence of ESBL development in the region.N/A17
King Khalid HospitalNajran Cefuroxime was 79%, amikacin was 43%, and colistin was 8%include old age, chronic diseases, and invasive proceduresN/A73
  • Acinetobacter baumannii: A. baumannii, MDR: multidrug resistance, ICU: intensive care units, Ref: reference, N/A: not applicable

  • Acinetobacter baumannii: A. baumannii, MDR: multidrug resistance, ICU: intensive care units, Ref: reference?, N/A: not applicable, CRAB: carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii

  • Acinetobacter baumannii: A. baumannii, MDR: multidrug resistance, ICU: intensive care units, Ref: reference?, N/A: not applicable, CRAB: carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, BSI: bloodstream infection