Table 1

- The summary characteristics of the included studies.

StudyCountryStudy designDisease severityInterventions and dosageControlsPrimary outcomeFollow up
Lopes et al14BrazilMulticentre open-label RCTCOVID-19 patients hospitalized with symptoms for up to 14 daysRivaroxaban 20mg OD for 30 days or a reduced dose of 15 mg/day with a creatinine clearance of 30-49 mL/min or enoxaparin or intravenous UFH for patients with an unstable condition, followed by rivaroxaban for 30 days (n=311)Enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin (n=304) CrCl ≥30: enoxaparin 40 mg SC every 24 hours or UFH 5000 units SC every 8-12 hours if BMI is <40; enoxaparin 60 mg SC every 24 hours or 40 mg SC every 12 hours or UFH 7500 units SC every 8-12 hours if BMI is ≥40; CrCl <30: UFH 5000 units SC every 8-12 hours if BMI <40; UFH 7500 units SC every 8-12 hours if BMI is ≥40.Time to death, length of hospital stay and number of days on oxygen support30 days
Ananworanich et al15USASingle center RCTPatients with mild COVID-19 and high risk for severe COVID-19Rivaroxaban 10mg OD for 21days (n=84)Multivitamin one tablet OD for 21 days (n=82)Serious AEs, hypersensitivity, major bleeding events, the frequency of AEs35 days
Ramacciott et al16USAMulticentre open-label RCTpatients at discharge who were hospitalized with COVID-19 for a minimum of 3 daysRivaroxaban 10mg OD (n=159)Placebo (n=159)Venous thromboembolism with symptomatic or fatal, asymptomatic symptomatic arterial thromboembolism, and cardiovascular death35days
Avezum et al19BrazilMulticentre open-label RCTPatients with mild or moderate COVID-19, within ≤7 days from symptom onsetRivaroxaban 10 mg OD for 14 days (n=327)Routine care (n=330)Thromboembolic events rate of ventilation and hospitalization, mortality30 days
Piazza et al18USAMulticentre double-blind RCTPatients with COVID-19, at least one thrombosis risk factorRivaroxaban 10 mg OD for 35 days (n=599)Placebo (n=598)Thromboembolic events, all-cause hospitalization, all-cause mortality up to day 3535 days
Rauch‑Kröhnert et al17GermanyMulticentre open-label RCTAmbulatory or hospitalized adults with moderate to severe COVID-19Rivaroxaban 20mg OD for at least 7 days and followed with 10 mg OD for 28 days (n=43)heparin for at least 7 days followed by no thromboprophylaxis (n=45)The D-dimer level, the WHO 7-category ordinal scale at 7 days35 days

RCT: randomized controlled trial, COVID: coronavirus disease, OD: once daily, UFH: unfractionated heparin, CrCl: creatinine clearance, SC: subcutaneous, BMI: body mass index, AEs: adverse events, WHO: World Health Organization