Prevalence of retinopathy in hypertensive patients.
To determine the prevalence of retinopathy in hypertensive patients referred to a teaching hospital in Yazd, Iran.
This cross-sectional study included 213 hypertensive patients referring to a teaching hospital in Yazd, Iran between November 2004 and June 2005. Data were collected using a questionnaire after an interview and ocular examination. Demographic variables, hypertensive retinopathy, familial history of hypertension, duration of diagnosis, and other hypertension side effects such as cardiac, renal, cerebro-vascular complications were analyzed. The Scheie's staging system was used for retinopathy grading.
A total of 213 patients (95 men, 118 women) with high blood pressure aged between 25 and 85 years (mean age of 64.47 +/- 10.66 years) were enrolled in this study, wherein 39.9% of patients suffered from retinopathy. This rate was higher in women (45.6%) than in men (33%). The positive familial history of hypertension was reported in 47.8% of patients. The prevalence rate of retinopathy in patients suffering from mild hypertension was 25.3%, moderate hypertension was 34.5% and severe hypertension 84.6%. Of the patients with retinopathy, 42.36% had grade I, 20% had grade II and 2.35% had grade III retinopathy. The most common ophthalmoscopic findings were arteriolar narrowing (35.13%), arterio-venous nicking (17.12%) and cotton wool patches (9%).
Positive family history of hypertension and target organs involvement are important risk factors for retinopathy. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension to prevent complications is essential.
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