Adipokine levels and their association with insulin resistance and fetal outcomes among the newborns of Indian gestational diabetic mothers

Balachandiran Manoharan, Zachariah Bobby, Gowri Dorairajan, Vickneshwaran Vinayagam, Rajaa Muthu Packirisamy


Objectives: To investigate the cord blood levels of adipokine and to assess their association with the fetal insulin resistance and fetal outcomes in newborns of gestational diabetic women (GDM).


Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 40 GDM women and 40 healthy pregnant women (HPW) in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) hospital in Puducherry, India, during the period from May 2016 to December 2017. Cord blood samples were collected at delivery from GDM and HPW groups. Cord plasma biochemical parameters such as insulin, C-peptide, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin concentrations were measured. Leptin/adiponectin ratio (L/A), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S) and beta cell function (HOMA2-%B) were calculated. The pregnancy outcomes such as birth weight (BW), Ponderal index and Apgar scores of the baby were measured.


Results: The BW and Ponderal index of the baby were found to be significantly higher in GDM newborns compared to HPW newborns. Cord plasma insulin, C-peptide, HOMA2 –IR, visfatin, leptin, and L/A ratio were significantly higher whereas adiponectin level was lower in GDM compared to HPW. A significant positive correlation was observed between L/A ratio and fetal HOMA2-IR.


Conclusion: Altered adipokine levels with increased L/A ratio was observed among the new-borns of Indian gestational diabetic mothers. There was an association between increased L/A ratio, insulin resistance and increased Ponderal index among the new-borns.


Saudi Med J 2019; Vol. 40 (4): 353-359
doi: 10.15537/smj.2019.4.24058

How to cite this article:
Manoharan B, Bobby Z, Dorairajan G, Vinayagam V, Packirisamy RM. Adipokine levels and their association with insulin resistance and fetal outcomes among the newborns of Indian gestational diabetic mothers. Saudi Med J. 2019 Apr;40(4):353-359. doi: 10.15537/smj.2019.4.24058.


Gestational diabetes; Adipokine; Fetal insulin resistance

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