Celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Characterization and meta-analysis

Mohammad Ayman Safi


Objectives: To characterize and meta-analyze the pertinent studies concerning celiac disease (CD) among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Methods: Data (from the relevant articles) were analyzed using both the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) program and the comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA) program. This study was conducted between March and July 2018 at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Written ethical approval was not obtained because this study was a retrospective literature review and analysis.


Results: The prevalence of seropositive-CD was 15.88% with high heterogeneity (I2=84.0), while the prevalence of biopsy-proven CD was 12% with high heterogeneity (I2=82.7). Anti-transglutaminase was used in 7 of the 8 studies; alone in 4; with endomysial antibodies in 2; and with antigliadin antibodies (AGA) in one. In the remaining study, antireticulin antibodies was used with AGA. The age of the involved patients ranged from 8 months to 50 years old.


Conclusion: The prevalence of biopsy-proven CD among T1DM patients in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (12.0%) was double the global prevalence (6.0%), and much higher than the normal Saudi population (1.4%). The female-to-male ratio (2:1) of CD patients in T1DM was the same as in the normal population in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No significant difference was detected between the reported serologically-proven rates and the reported biopsy-proven rates (p=0.093).




Saudi Med J 2019; Vol. 40 (7): 647-656

How to cite this article:
Mohammad-Ayman A. Safi. Celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Characterization and meta-analysis. Saudi Med J 2019; 40 (7): 647-656. doi:10.15537/smj.2019.7.24293.



Saudi Arabia; CD prevalence in T1DM patients; celiac disease meta-analysis; heterogeneity

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